Development trend and Enlightenment of foreign pow

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Development trend and Enlightenment of foreign power market

Abstract: worldwide, the reform of power industry began in Chile in 1981. The reform of the power industry began in the late 1980s

key words: electric test consulting and equipment design service power industrial reform vertical monopoly multi head monopoly market competition Untitled Document from a worldwide perspective, the reform of electric power industry began in Chile in 1981. However, this reform developed into a worldwide reform movement after Britain began the reform of power industry in the late 1980s. 1. The power reform mode of countries all over the world has great differences in the power industry management mode of countries all over the world, which is closely related to the development degree of domestic market economy, economic development level, ownership form and so on. To sum up, there are about the following modes: (1) single vertical monopoly mode: the national power generation, transmission and distribution business are all operated by one power company, mostly state-owned enterprises, which are controlled by the state. France, Italy, Portugal, Greece and other countries belong to this type. (2) Multi head monopoly mode: there are two kinds of modes. The first is multi vertical monopoly mode, which is operated by multiple power companies in different regions. The power supply in each region is relatively independent. The power generation, transmission and distribution are monopolized vertically, and the power in each region is interconnected. Japan is a typical example of this model. There are 10 major power companies in the country. Except Okinawa power company, the other 9 major power companies have been connected to each other. The second is the monopoly operation of multiple power generation and transmission companies. The distribution business is operated by multiple other companies, and the transmission is interconnected. At present, the power industry in California adopts this model. (3) Single monopoly and multi head combination mode: the power transmission business is operated by a single power company and vertically operates the power generation and distribution business. Other enterprises are also allowed to enter the field of power generation and distribution. However, due to the advantage of power companies monopolizing power transmission, the state regulates power companies in order to ensure fair competition. At present, power enterprises in Germany and the United States belong to this management mode. (4) Open market competition mode: complete competition is implemented in the field of power generation and distribution, and power transmission is operated by one company and supervised by the government. This model is mostly formed after the reform of power industry in various countries in recent 10 years, represented by Britain, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Norway, New Zealand, Singapore, the Netherlands and other countries. Throughout the power system reform and the establishment mode of power market in various countries in the world, the basic trend of global power industry reform is to break the monopoly and form a competitive mechanism, which has become an inevitable trend. However, the power industry requires the simultaneous completion of power generation, transmission and supply and the characteristics of serving the public. The way to break the monopoly is not a simple opening, nor a "laissez faire" market. There are two distinct characteristics in the reform of power market in various countries: first, limit the monopoly to the minimum, that is, only retain the real monopoly links. Its basic approach is to implement the exclusive operation under the supervision of the government for the national power with obvious public nature (1) ofo and BASF to build a regional double-layer tire system), and liberalize the competition in other links of the power industry (power generation and sales). Second, in order to achieve the purpose of competition, we should adopt the policy of large-scale industry restructuring and asset sale. Industry restructuring divides power enterprises into three links: power generation, transmission and power supply according to the production process. In the links that can operate according to competition, the state-owned power companies are divided into several and new companies are allowed to join to form a competition mechanism. The reorganization of power industry should make the shareholder value, service quality and price level reach the optimal balance and maximize the total value of the three parties. If you still don't know 2 the characteristics of foreign power reform, the power industry has its particularity as a public utility. Therefore, even in countries with relatively perfect market economic system, the organization form and operation mechanism of the power industry also exist for a long time with the particularity different from the general competitive industry. There are two main reasons to promote and make this reform successful: one is the external pressure, that is, the social requirements for improving the efficiency of the power industry, because monopoly operation is easy to disconnect enterprise management from market pressure, resulting in high cost and low efficiency, resulting in the rise of electricity price. The social requirements for improving the efficiency of the power industry are the external conditions to promote the reform. Second, reform and material conditions, that is, the development of power safety technology, so that power can still maintain the stability and security of production and supply under the conditions of separation of power generation, transmission, distribution and sales and competition. The process of foreign power reform is generally that the government puts forward the requirements of reform, establishes an authoritative organization to design the reform scheme, drafts relevant policies and regulations, decomposes the traditional integrated power companies, and establishes an organization to supervise competition. The results of the global power reform that began in the early 1980s are different. After carefully studying the worldwide practice of power reform, we can draw a conclusion: there is no ready-made model for power industry restructuring, and the industrial model of a country depends on the characteristics of the country's power industry and political, economic and social factors. There is no perfect reform mode of power industry in the world. The reform of power industry should be practical and realistic and should proceed from the actual situation. The Enlightenment of foreign power reform experience to China (1) we should have a clear understanding of the purpose of power reform to determine the reform steps and methods: the reform purposes in different countries and different periods are different. Different reform purposes will lead to different reform methods and steps. The purpose of British power reform is to bring benefits to users, improve efficiency and improve social benefits. The best way to achieve this goal is extensive competition to reduce costs and electricity prices, bring new rights and more and better services to users, and make users the first beneficiary, not just security. Breaking monopoly, encouraging competition, improving efficiency, reducing electricity price and improving service have become the direction of power industry reform in most countries. For the reform of China's power industry, it is important to face the reality of diversified investment in power generation and the disadvantages of vertical integrated management, introduce competition mechanism in the field of power generation through asset restructuring, fully reflect the principles of fairness, impartiality and openness, and improve the state's control over power. This is different from the reform in other countries. Of course, the result of competition is bound to reduce costs, reduce electricity prices and improve service levels. (2) Establish electricity market and introduce competition mechanism

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